The system of sensors is comprised of two hydro-climate stations one of which is located in the coastal plain near Beloc while the other is (was) located in the mountains near Fondwa on Rt National 4. There are also 10 well monitors in the municipality of Leogane. The well monitors are spread throughout the coastal plain to track the shallow GW levels and are collected once a week. Since January 2018 we also measure pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electric Conductivity (EC), and Temperature, and starting in 2020 we added Barometric Pressure, Dissolved Oxygen, Salinity, and ORP. Once a year we conduct a round of extra tests for: Presence/Absence for Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliform (Agar), E-Coli (Presence/Absence and Agar), Hardness, Alkalinity, Nitrate, Nitrite, Iron, Copper, Sulfate, Manganese, and Hydrogen Sulfide. In general:
- the groundwater is very hard >180 mg/L
- TDS is often very high >500 mg/L
- pH is on the higher side ~8
- biological agents are present in almost all wells
- DO is very low <5.0 mg/L
all other parameters are below EPA safe drinking water standards or giving raise to no concern,
The hydro-climate station (Campbell Scientific) senses values every 10 seconds and an hourly average is stored for transmission either via the telemetry system (Iridium Satellite) in almost realtime, or twice a week via direct download. In January 2020 we added a METER ATMOS41 Station (see image; the "baseball bat" in the center) for redundancy and data quality purposes to make sure all instruments on both stations collect the same data.
We are currently measuring:
Precipitation (Prec) Learn more about Precipitation
Air Temperature (ATem) Learn more about Air Temperature
Relative Humidity (RHum) Learn more about Relative Humidity
Wind (speed WSpe); direction WDir) Learn more about Wind
Solar Radiation (SRad) Learn more about Solar Radiation
The station in Fondwa operated from 2012 - 2014 before being taken down. Data for this station has been supplemented by a nearby station in Tom Gateau (Haitian Gov operated). The equipment has been acquired from Campbell Scientific (hydro-climate stations), Instrumentation NorthWest (well sensor), and from 2013 to 2016 Upward Innovation (DataGarrison -> satellite comms). We have since then ceased to use satellite connections because of the expense and lack of reliability in connections and transmissions. The hire (and raining) of two local field technicians who transmit data twice a week after local download proved to be a) cheaper, and b) a lot more reliable.
We have also acquired stream gauge data for the Cormier and Rouyonne watersheds. The data are collected by the Haitian Ministry of the Environment via Echopodes mounted on the river crossings of Rt National 2 in Leogane and Carrefour du Fort for the Rouyonne and Cormier, respectively. The setup requires the knowledge of the cross section and also the need to have the echopod measure at the deepest point in the cross section which funnels the stream flow during low flow conditions.